Ackerman, J. D. & M. R. Mesler. 1979. Pollination biology of Listera cordata (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 66:820-824.

Boyden, T. C. 1982. The pollination biology of Calypso bulbosa var. americana (Orchidaceae): Initial deception of bumblebee visitors. Oecologia 55:178-184.

Bratton (see Galearis)

Case, F. W. 1964. A hybrid twayblade and its rarer parent, Listera auriculata, in northern Michigan. Michigan Botanist 3:67-70.

Case, F. W. 1983. Platanthera X vossii, a new natural hybrid orchid from northern lower Michigan. Michigan Botanist 22:141-144.

Case, F. W. 1987. Orchids of the western Great Lakes region. Cranbrook Institute of Science, MI.

Catling, P. M. 1976. On the geographical distribution, ecology and distinctive features of Listera X veltmanii Case. Rhodora 78:261-269.

Catling, P. M. 1980. Rain-assisted autogamy in Liparis loeselii (L.) L. C. Rich. (Orchidaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club107:525-529.

Catling, P. M. 1983a. Autogamy in eastern Canadian Orchidaceae: a review of current knowledge and some new observations. Naturaliste Canadien 110:37-53.

Catling, P. M. 1983b. Pollination of northeastern North American Spiranthes (Orchidaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 61:1080-1093.

Catling, P. M. 1983c. Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata (Orchidaceae), a new autogamous variety from the eastern United States. Brittonia 35:120-125.

Catling, P. M. 1995. (see P. lacera and P. psycodes)

Catling, P. M. & J. E. Cruise. 1974. Spiranthes casei, a new species from northeastern North America. Rhodora 76:526-536.

Catling, P. M. & G. Knerer. 1980. Pollination of the small white lady's-slipper (Cypripedium candidum) in Lambton County, Southern Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 94:435-438.

Correll, D. S. 1950. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Davis, R. W. 1986. The pollination biology of Cypripedium acaule (Orchidaceae). Rhodora 88:445-450.

Dieringer, G. 1982. The pollination ecology of Orchis spectabilis L. (Orchidaceae). Ohio Journal of Science 82:218-225.

Duckett, C. 1983. Pollination and seed production of the ragged fringed orchis, Platanthera lacera (Orchidaceae). Honor's thesis, Brown University, Providence, RI.

Fuller, A. M. 1933. Studies on the flora of Wisconsin, Part I: The Orchids; Orchidaceae. North American Press, Milwaukee, WI.

Guignard, J. A. 1886. Insects and orchids. Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 16:39-48.

Guignard, J. A. 1887. Beginning an acquaintance with wild bees. Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 17:51-53.

Hogan, K. P. 1983. The pollination biology and breeding system of Aplectrum hyemale (Orchidaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 61:1906-1910.

Homoya, M. A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, IN.

Kallunki, J. A. 1976. Population studies in Goodyera (Orchidaceae) with emphasis on the hybrid origin of G. tesselata. Brittonia 28:53-75.

Kallunki, J. A. 1981. Reproductive biology of mixed-species populations of Goodyera (Orchidaceae) in Northern Michigan. Brittonia 33:137-55.

Keenan, P. E. 1992. A new form of Triphora trianthophora Swartz) Ryd., and part 3 of observations on the ecology of Triphora trianthophora (Orchidaceae) in New Hampshire. Rhodora 94:38-42.

Luer, C. A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada. New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY.

MacDougal, D. T. 1895. Poisonous influence of various species of Cypripedium. Bulletin of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota 9:450-451.

Mosquin, T. 1970. The reproductive biology of Calypso bulbosa (Orchidaceae). Canadian Field-Naturalist 84:291-296.

Robertson, C. 1928. Flowers and insects. Carlinville, IL.

Sheviak, C. J. 1974. An introduction to the ecology of the Illinois Orchidaceae. Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL.

Sheviak, C. J. 1982. Biosystematic study of the Spiranthes cernua complex. New York State Museum Bulletin 448.

Sheviak, C. J. and M. L. Bowles. 1986. The prairie fringed orchids: a pollinator-isolated pair. Rhodora 88:267-290.

Stoutamire, W. P. 1967. The floral biology of the lady's-slippers. Michigan Botanist 6:159-175.

Stoutamire, W. P. 1968. Mosquito pollination of Habenaria obtusata (Orchidaceae). Michigan Botanist 7:203-212.

Stoutamire, W. P. 1971. Pollination in temperate American orchids. pp. 233-243 in M. J. G. Corrigan [ed.], Proc. 6th World Orchid Conference. Sydney. Australia. Sydney: Halstead Press.

Stoutamire, W. P. 1974. Relationships of the purple-fringed orchids Platanthera psycodes and P. grandiflora. Brittonia 26:42-58.

Steele, W. K. 1995. Growing Cypripedium reginae from seed. American Orchid Society Bulletin 64:382-391.

Thien, L. B. & B. G. Marcks. 1972. The floral biology of Arethusa bulbosa, Calopogon tubersosus and Pogonia ophioglossoides. Canadian Journal of Botany 50:2319-2325.

Thien, L. B. & F. Utech. 1970. The mode of pollination in Habenaria obtusata (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 57(9): 1031-1035.

Voss, E. G. & R. E. Riefner. 1983. A pyralid moth (Lepidoptera) as pollinator of Blunt-leaf Orchid. Great Lakes Entomologist 16(2): 57-60.

Williams, S. A. 1994. Observations on reproduction in Triphora trianthophora (Orchidaceae). Rhodora 96:30-43.

Return to the main LIST of the Orchids of Wisconsin.

Return to the main KEY to the Orchids of Wisconsin.